The analogy is called the relationship of similarity or similarity that can be identified between different things.
The word analogy comes from the Latin analogĭa, and this in turn comes from the Greek ἀναλογία (analogy), which means ‘proportion’, ‘likeness’.
The concept of analogy can also be used to refer to the reasoning according to which similar characteristics can be recognized between different beings or things.
Thus, an argument by analogy is one that uses similar situations to explain one thing, such as: “Our son feels anger when we don’t let him go out with his friends, just as you get angry when you turn off the TV while watching football. ”
In this sense, the analogy, as a concept, has a wide application in the most varied fields of knowledge, such as law, biology, linguistics, grammar, rhetoric or geography.
Analogy in law
In law, the analogy refers to the method by which a legal norm is extended to cases that had not previously been contemplated in it, this is due to the fact that a similarity relationship with other specific cases or situations can be identified in them. which had already been applied.
Biology considers as analogies the similarities between parts or organs that, in different organisms, have similar functions, as well as the same relative position. Such would be the case, for example, of the udder of a cow with the breasts of a woman, whose function is to breastfeed; Another similar case would be that of the wings of a butterfly and those of a bee.
Within the field of linguistics, the principle of analogy can be applied for the creation of new linguistic forms or for the modification of existing ones, based on the similarity between them. The example par excellence is the preterites of I had, I was, I walked, formed from the analogy with Hube.
For grammar, the analogy constitutes the relations of similarity, forms that present the linguistic elements whose functions are equal or coincident with each other. For example, one of the analogies between the word being and being is that both are verbs.
In this sense, grammar analogies, also called verbal analogies, are divided into two types: symmetric and asymmetric analogies.
Symmetric and asymmetric analogies
Symmetric analogies are interchangeable as they are equivalent; instead, the terms of asymmetric analogies are related but do not indicate similarity.
Types of symmetric analogies
Within the symmetric analogies:
- Synonym analogies: they share the same characteristics as, for example, light and lamp.
- Analogies for complementarity: objects linked in a function such as bed and rest.
- Cogeneric analogies: they belong to the same class or category as, for example, novel and story.
Types of asymmetric analogies
Among the asymmetric analogies we can count the following:
- Antonymic or oppositional analogies: opposite terms such as analogy and difference.
- Intensity analogies: the degree of emphasis or power, such as disgust and hate.
- Inclusive analogies: relationship between the whole and a component of the whole. This category is divided by: genus-species, suchas canine and dog; all-part, such as Sonora and Mexico; set-element such as shoal and fish; continent-content such as computer and motherboard.
- Analogies by location: they are related by the place where they are, for example, plane and airport.
- Analogies of sequentiality: different stages of the same cycle, such as childhood and adolescence.
- Analogies by function: they are associated by work or task, such as cook and cooking.
- Analogies by reciprocity: one determines the existence of the other as, for example, mother and child.
- Analogies by product: one generates the other as, for example, baker and bread.
- Analogies by means and / or instrument: a tool attributed to an agent such as an astronomer and telescope.
- Analogies by characteristic: indicates an attribute of the object such as sun and heat.
In rhetoric, the analogy designates a literary resource through which relationships of similarity are established between two elements, concepts or ideas, in order to offer a novel perspective of the matter in question that allows the reader to understand it from other angles.
For example: Batman is to Robin what Sancho is to Don Quixote; the water is to the plants what the bird to the parakeet.
In geography, the analogy is used to establish similarities and disparities between different facts and phenomena that occur in different parts of the planet.
In this sense, the principle of analogy can be applied to compare the Caribbean Sea with the South China Sea, or the Amazon Rainforest with the Lacandon Jungle.
As a result of this study process, we obtain general and specific characteristics of each of the places, which allows us to better understand its peculiarities.