An anarchism is known as a philosophical system and a political theory that corresponds to the absence of government. The word anarchism is of Greek origin “anarkhos,” meaning without government or power.
Anarchism arises in the nineteenth century as a proposal of the English philosopher and politician William Godwin (1756-1836) of a new political and economic system other than capitalism.
Godwin claimed that society could live without laws and without the restrictions of a government, and achieve its balance through the freedom of individuals, which meant the state of the ideal society.
Anarchism proposes principles based on the end of private property and the division of social classes, the State and institutions in general, which meant the absence of authoritarianism, oppression and domination.
Also, it supports the creation of institutions by the free agreement and association of citizens, and education to develop capacities in man that allow him to reason for himself and thus be able to be free.
Anarchism is a political theory that rejects state power and considers that the coexistence between human beings is determined by the will and reason of each. For this ideology, man is good by nature but society and the state destroy him, preventing him from achieving his happiness and goals.
Subsequently, other thinkers continued their studies and theories on anarchism, such as Max Stirner (1806-1856), Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865), Leon Tolstoy (1828-1910), Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876) and Piotr Kropotkin (1842 -1921), among others.
In turn, within the anarchism there are different currents, such as collectivism, of Bakunista roots, and anarcho-communism, of Kropotkian affiliation, which was opposed to the trade class unions.
It is usually pointed out in the middle of the 20th century as the moment of the decline of the anarchist movement.
In colloquial language, the term anarchism acquired a negative and mistaken connotation, usually associated with disorder or absence of rules, or used as a synonym for chaos .
Characteristics of anarchism
Anarchism is essentially characterized by the following aspects:
- He believes in the freedom and autonomy of individuals, and, consequently, in the creation of communes of workers that are governed by voluntarily federated assemblies.
- It is in favor of the suppression of the State, political parties and all kinds of oppressive power.
- It opposes private property, given that it is the cause of social inequalities.
- It gives importance to education and knowledge so that man becomes free and does not live subordinate to another.
Anarchism and socialism
Both systems are similar in the rejection of capitalism and the search for a more just and equal society. The anarchism differs from socialism that is contrary to the State: its main objective is to destroy it because they believe in political parties or any political power, his only belief is in the individual and in their education.
For its part, socialism supports the existence of a state governed by the proletariat to direct the economic, social and political system of the countries. Socialism believes in collective property, in the unity of workers and in their participation through political parties as a revolutionary medium.
The anarchist symbol is an uppercase letter A within a circle. There are several conceptions and interpretations about its meaning. The words anarchy and anarchism begin with the letter A.
For its part, the circle is seen by some as a symbol of perfection, for others of unity, and even of the world, but also as the vowel O, of order, in reference to the motto “Anarchy is order.”
Another symbol is the black flag, being the black color chosen in representation of purity and fidelity to its ideals, since that color does not get dirty or stain.