Anemia is known as the syndrome that is characterized by the decrease in the number or size of the red blood cells contained in the blood or its hemoglobin level.
Hemoglobin is a protein found inside the red blood cells, its main function being to transport oxygen from the lungs to all body tissues. In this sense, when the human body feels severe anemia, the body responds with an increase in the synthesis of erythropoietin (Epo) as the main mechanism of adaptation for anemia.
Anemia can be caused by various causes, but the main one is the lack of iron, or vitamins, although it can also be a symptom of an underlying disorder, such as: bleeding from the digestive tract or heavy menstrual periods, chronic kidney disease, cancers, radiotherapy, infection or spinal cord disorder.
On the other hand, in case of a high level of hemoglobin, it can be due to causes other than those presented above, such as: dehydration, congenital heart defects at birth, scarring or thickening of the lungs, among others.
With the onset of anemia, the body’s tissues and organs do not receive enough oxygen, so some symptoms arise such as:
- Muscular fatigue.
- Tachycardia and constant palpitations.
- Neurological disorders, such as headaches, insomnia, disorientation, vision disorders.
- Digestive disorders, such as constriction, anorexia, nausea.
- Kidney disorders
- In the case of women, alterations in the menstrual rhythm, with the existence of abundant rules but in the case that the anemia is intense, there is a decrease in it.
It is noteworthy that anemia is a common condition during early pregnancies, due to the fact that iron deficiency has been said before, since this stage the woman needs a higher consumption of this vitamin, and that is why the doctor prescribe prenatal vitamins, and sometimes iron supplements, apart from a diet rich in iron. However, some specialists link premature births and low birth weight due to iron deficiency.
Anemia is detected by a blood test. The normal values of anemia vary according to the sex and age of the individual, and also by the range of values established in laboratories, but in general they are:
- Adults: male 13.8 – 17.2 g / dL, female 12.1 – 15-1 g / dL.
- Children: newborn 14 – 24 g / dL, baby 9.5 – 13 g / dL.
However, to combat or prevent anemia, specialists recommend eating foods rich in iron, vitamins C, folic acid (vitamin B9), and the practice of an exercise routine such as yoga, meditation, walking, among others.
Generally, the red blood cells last approximately 120 days in the body, but the individual suffering from hemolytic anemia their red blood cells is destroyed early. By virtue, that the bone marrow is unable to replenish the red blood cells that are being destroyed.
In consideration of the above, the present disease can be caused by infections, abnormalities in red blood cells, exposure to chemicals, drugs, and toxins. Also, by blood transfusion from a donor with a blood type incompatible with the individual, or blood clots in small blood vessels.
Megaloblastic anemia is characterized by a lack of vitamin B12 and folic acid, triggering a deficiency in the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow.
It is noteworthy at this point, that pernicious anemia is a type of megaloblastic anemia that occurs when the intestines cannot absorb vitamin B12 due to the consumption of foods that have the same as beef, poultry, shellfish, eggs, products Dairy, etc.
Sickle cell anemia
Sickle cell anemia is a blood disease of hereditary origin, when a person inherits two abnormal genes, which causes the red blood cells to have an abnormal shape, very similar to the sickle tool, and not their own disk-shaped shape, rigid and curved
Normally, the individual suffering from this disease has difficulty fighting infections. Likewise, this type of anemia is more likely to suffer from people who have black ancestors, but also certain ethnic groups, of Mediterranean or Middle Eastern origin.
Aplastic anemia is caused by insufficient production of new blood cells by the bone marrow, which can be due to several causes such as pregnancy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, immune disorders, the intake of certain medications, among others.
Inflammatory anemia is caused by low iron availability induced by an inflammatory syndrome, such as cancer, rheumatic diseases such as polyarthritis or lupus, or infectious diseases.