The aneurysm, also known as aortic aneurysm or aortic aneurysm, is the abnormal dilation of the vascular wall layers, due to the fragility or alteration of the vascular wall, either from birth or acquired. The word aneurysm is of Greek origin aneurysma which means ‘dilation’.
The aortic artery is the conduit through which blood is expelled through the left ventricle and is distributed to the arterial tree. When the aortic wall weakens, there is a risk of a possible widening that leads to the aneurysm, and reaching a certain diameter can cause the blood vessel to rupture.
The severity of the aneurysm is measured by its size and part of the body where the dilation occurred that when breaking the blood vessel can lead to serious sequelae that compromise the quality of the life of the individual, such as problems of locomotion, alteration or disturbances in communication, etc.
The aneurysm can be presented in two ways: one spherical (saccular aneurysm) and another in an elongated shape (fusiform aneurysm).
The aneurysm can be detected at birth or acquired over time but still without having specific knowledge of the causes that cause it, although there are certain factors that can alter the risk of some types of aneurysm, such as: alcohol, cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, high blood pressure, obesity, people over 50 years.
Finally, to prevent an aneurysm it is advisable to control cardiovascular risk factors and follow a healthy and balanced diet accompanied by gentle and regular physical exercises.
As the name implies, cerebral aneurysm is a dilation that occurs in the wall of a weakened blood vessel of a cerebral artery. A cerebral aneurysm causes severe headaches, and can leave important sequelae that due to rupture of the artery or hemorrhage can compress other arteries of the brain.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm
The abdominal aortic aneurysm is a lump or balloon filled with blood in the part of the aorta that extends through the abdomen. With progressive growth and blood pressure can cause rupture of the aorta and cause severe pain and internal bleeding.
Symptoms of aneurysm
The formation of an aneurysm is slow and progressive. In most cases, there are no symptoms until they break or expand, and in these cases the following manifestations may occur:
- Double vision
- Severe headaches
- Fast heart rate
- Low blood pressure
In the case of an aneurysm near the surface of the body, pain and swelling can be seen with a pulsatile bump, such as an abdominal aortic aneurysm.
The treatment of aneurysm is particular for each type, but it usually leads to surgical intervention and treatment under drugs.