Angiosperms refer to vascular land plants that produce seeds, flowers and fruits.
Angiosperms are the most diverse group in the plantae kingdom with more than 250,000 species identified. Angiosperms are in the spermatophyte group, that is, plants that produce seeds.
Angiosperms, as part of the plantae kingdom, are multicellular, autotrophic, eukaryotic, aerobic and immobile. Angiosperms are characterized from the rest of the plant species by possessing:
- ovules protected by their fruits
- modified leaves that facilitate fertilization (calyx, corolla)
- high adaptability
- showy flowers
- male organ (stamen) and female organ (pistil) in the same flower (mostly monoecious)
Angiosperms are also characterized by the diversity of means they use for pollination. They use insects (entomophilic pollination), wind (anemophilic pollination) or birds (ornithophilic pollination). After fertilization of the ovule inside the ovary, the ovary matures and becomes fruit.
Types of Angiosperms
Angiosperms are divided into two groups of plants according to the primary leaves that emerge when germinating:
- The monocots: the embryo contains only one cotyledon, that is, only one leaf is born when germinating. They are considered more evolved and among them are bulbous, grasses, orchids and palm trees.
- Dicotyledons: they are the most common group of plants. Its embryo contains two cotyledons, which means that two leaves will germinate. This group is considered more primitive than monocotyledons.