What are Animal and Plant Cells?
Both the animal cell and the plant cell are eukaryotic cells, this means that they have a nucleus defined in a nuclear envelope and contain more complex DNA in it.
The animal cell is eukaryotic, with a defined nucleus and complex DNA. The animal kingdom is made up of multicellular beings, that is, each being contains several cells.
The animal cell is characterized by being the smallest unit that performs all the necessary functions to maintain the good biological functioning of the organism.
Parts of the animal cell
The animal cell has a nucleus that contains the nucleolus, where the ribosomes are generated, and most of the genetic material in the form of chromosomes.
Outside the nucleus of an animal cell and inside the plasma membrane is the cytosol, full of cytoplasm. In the cytosol is the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) surrounding the nucleus filled with ribosomes. Also in the cytosol we can see cytoskeletons, lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, peroxisome and other ribosomes.
Depending on the cell type, the division of animal cells can occur through mitosis or meiosis.
The plant cell is eukaryotic, that is, it has a well-defined cell nucleus. The plant cell is part of the organisms that make up the plantae kingdom, the main characteristic being the ability to manufacture its own food.
Plant cell parts
The plant cell differs from other eukaryotic cells by having a cell wall that surrounds the plasma membrane. This wall is made of cellulose and maintains the rectangular or cubic shape of the cell. Also, the organelle called chloroplasts transforms the energy from sunlight into chemical energy known as photosynthesis.
Similarities between animal and plant cell
The animal and plant cells are similar because they are both eukaryotes. This means that they have a defined nucleus. The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope inside which they contain:
- Nucleolus, which is the place where ribosomes are produced.
- Chromatins, which is a concentration of DNA chromosomes with genetic information.
In addition to the nucleus, the parts that the animal and plant cells have in common are:
- Cellular or plasma membrane
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- Lysosomes (only in simple plant cells)
- Golgi apparatus
Differences between animal and plant cell
The animal and plant cells differ in some structures and in the way cell division occurs in them.
Animal cells, unlike plant cells, contain centrioles that help form cilia and flagella. In addition, they have a much smaller vacuole than the vegetable one. The form of cell division is also different, that of the animal cell consists of a contrition through mitosis or meiosis.
On the other hand, plant cells differ from animals by containing the following organelles and components:
Chloroplasts, which transform light energy into chemical energy in the process known as photosynthesis. Chloroplasts contain flattened sacs called thylakoids, a liquid called a stroma, and their own DNA.
Vacuole , whose size is much larger than that of the animal cell, being able to occupy up to 90% of the space in the cytoplasm. Vacuole growth is the main growth mechanism of the plant and stores nutrients and waste products. In the animal cell, it is the lysosomes that have the function of recycling waste structures.
Cell wall, which surrounds the plasma membrane maintaining the rectangular or cubic shape of the cell. It is made up of cellulose, proteins, polysaccharides and channels that connect to the cytoplasm of adjacent cells called plasmodesms.