What is Animal Cell?
The animal cell is one that makes up various animal tissues. It is of the eukaryotic type and can reproduce independently.
Animals and humans have a large number of cells that are essential for our lives.
Each animal cell is made up of three important parts: the cell membrane, the cytoplasm, and the cell nucleus, which in turn are made up of other parts that are vital for the cell to fulfill its function.
Parts of the animal cell
Below are the internal parts of the animal cell and their functions.
Cellular or plasma membrane
It is the cellular envelope that is characterized by being the external part that delimits the cell and by its thickness.
The cell membrane is mainly made up of lipids or fats, in particular phospholipids and cholesterol, forming a double lipid layer like a sealed bag.
Embedded in this lipid layer are protein channels or passageways. Thanks to these channels or transporters substances necessary for metabolism enter and ions or waste products leave.
This is why the membrane is semipermeable, it only allows the passage of some substances into and out of the cell.
The cytoplasm is a part of the cell made up of a gelatinous fluid in which the various structures that make up the animal cell are found and where different chemical reactions are carried out. They are specialized parts of the cell.
The structures that are in the cytoplasm are cellular organelles: mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum and centrioles.
The mitochondria is the structure where the cellular respiration process takes place and ATP is produced, the main source of energy that allows the different processes to take place in the cell.
In the rough endoplasmic reticulum, named for the presence of ribosomes, proteins are synthesized. While in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, lipid synthesis occurs. From here, these molecules pass to the Golgi apparatus, where they are packaged and take the final form of processing.
The nucleus of the cell is floating in the cytoplasm, and can occupy up to 10 percent of the cell space. It is made up of the nuclear envelope that encapsulates the nucleoplasm, the nuclear fluid where chromatin (DNA condensed with proteins) floats and the nucleolus.
In the nucleus is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a molecule that contains genetic information and is transmitted when cells divide.
DNA is the basis of inheritance. Inside the nucleus, DNA binds to proteins (called histones) and coils up and compacts to form chromosomes.