What is the Cell?
The cell is the basic, structural and functional unit of living beings. The word cell is of Latin origin cellula. See DIGOPAUL.COM for more information.
In biology, cells are classified into 2 main types of cells:
- the eukaryotic cells: cell nucleus and having
- The prokaryotes: not possess cell nucleus
The cell as the basic unit of all living things, classifies organisms by the number of cells that compose it, being:
- unicellular organisms: formed by a single cell, such as bacteria and protozoa, or
- multicellular organisms: 2 or more cells, such as animals and plants.
The cell also means a small cell, cavity or hole like a monastery cell.
Likewise, cell is a group that functions independently within a general organization, be it political, religious or social, such as, for example, “Those responsible were a group of people belonging to a guerrilla cell.”
In this context, cellular is also called the prison establishment where inmates are held incommunicado or the vehicle where detainees are moved.
The photoelectric or photovoltaic cell is an electronic device that converts light energy into electrical energy through the photoelectric effect.
Generally speaking, cellular refers to what is relative to cells or what is made up of cells.
In America, cellular is a portable telephone that in other countries like Spain is known as mobile.
Cell in biology
In biology, the cell is the basic building block of all living organisms. Cytology is part of biology that studies cells and their functions.
Likewise, the vital functions of living beings occur within cells and are controlled by substances that they secrete and, finally, each cell contains the hereditary information which allows its next generation cell transmission through mitosis or meiosis, as part of the cycle cell phone.
The cell is attributed with 3 vital functions for life: relationship, reproduction and nutrition.
Relationship function : Links the living being with the environment and responds to the environment.
Reproduction function : it is the process of formation of new cells from an initial cell or stem cell, through cell division that can be by mitosis or meiosis, depending on the type of cell and the stage in its cycle of life.
Nutrition function : it is the incorporation, transformation and assimilation of food and, in this way, the cell forms its own matter.
However, autotrophic cells (autotrophic nutrition ) make their own organic matter using the chemical energy contained in inorganic matter, and heterotrophic cells ( heterotrophic nutrition ) make their own organic matter from the organic matter of the food they eat.
Parts of the cell
Depending on the type of cell, the parts that make it up may differ. The smallest expression of cells generally consists of 3 elements:
- Plasma membrane: cell membrane in animal cells and cell wall in plant cells.
- Cytoplasm: liquid found in the cytosol, where all the particular elements of each cell float (DNA, mitochondria, ribosomes, etc.).
- Cell nucleus: it is present in eukaryotic cells (with a defined cell nucleus) and it is surrounded by cytoplasm.
The structure, characteristics and functions of cells begin to be defined under cell theory.
It is discussed around 1630 and its first 2 postulates are defined in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Shleiden and Theodor Schwann who affirm that:
- all organisms are made up of cells and,
- they derive from another preceding cell.
These foundations would later help the validity of the theory of biogenesis, against the abiogenesis in which it was previously believed.
Cells are classified into different types according to the context in which they are mentioned. Some of its divisions are created according to: the definition of a cell nucleus, the kingdom of nature that belongs to the organism and its function within a being.
According to cell nucleus
In general, cells are classified into 2 main groups according to whether or not they have a defined cell nucleus:
- eukaryotic cells and,
- prokaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells are those that have a defined cell nucleus. This cell nucleus is located within a nuclear envelope where the integrity of the genetic material is maintained.
Cell division in organisms with eukaryotic cells occurs through mitosis and their DNA is more complex. The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells have sterols, carbohydrates, and their ribosomes are larger. The organisms formed by these cells are called “eukaryotes”.
Prokaryotic cells are those that do not have a defined nucleus, for which the genetic material is dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.
Cell division in organisms with prokaryotic cells occurs through binary division and their DNA is not as complex as that of eukaryotic cells.
The membranes of prokaryotic cells do not have carbohydrates, sterols, and ribosomes are smaller. The organisms formed by this type of cells are called “prokaryotes”.
According to the kingdom of nature
The division by the type of organism to which the cell belongs, in general, is divided into 2 large groups:
- the animal cell and,
- the plant cell.
The animal cell is a type of eukaryotic cell that forms the different tissues of animals. The animal cell contains: a cellular envelope composed of a cell membrane, a cytoplasm where the cell organelles and the cell nucleus are found.
The plant cell is a type of eukaryotic cell whose nucleus is delimited by a membrane. The plant cell contains: a vacuole that stores and transports water, nutrients, and waste; plastids to synthesize food and chloroplasts.
According to function
Example of cell types in the human body
According to the function of the cells, they are classified by receiving the name of the part of the organism to which they belong.
For example, somatic cells come from stem cells originating during embryonic development and undergo a process of cell proliferation and apoptosis.
The opposite of somatic cells are the germ cells and from which gametes are formed.
Stem cells are located in all multicellular organisms and possess the ability to divide through mitosis and to generate at each division two identical cells and specialized cell lineages.
The somatic cells are those that serve the growth of tissue and organ of a living being such as skin, bones, and others. Mutating somatic cells can be the cause of cancers, especially colon cancer.