What is Chicano?
The people of the United States who have Mexican origins are usually designated as Chicano . The word, as such, is the product of a shortening of Mexican (Xicano).
In this sense, Chicanos can be the Hispanic inhabitants of the United States territories that in the past belonged to Mexico (Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming), or also people born in the United States who are children of Mexican immigrants. Another way to call Chicanos is as Mexican-Americans.
The word Chicano may have negative connotations (discriminatory, racist), but it can also be a form of ethnic affirmation , especially from the Chicano movement, which organized itself to demand fair civil rights between the 1960s and 1970s. As such, Chicanos constitute one of the largest minorities in the United States, accounting for more than 10% of the total population of this country.
Culturally, the Chicano individual feels like a hybrid subject, who shares his references between the United States and Mexico. Where this issue is best expressed is in the language, which is usually characterized by the name of Spanglish, a language that is a kind of mixture between Spanish and English, which can be seen in words such as parkear , which derives from the English parking , for refer to ‘park the car’, or vaccinate the folder , which means ‘vacuum the carpet’, which in English is called “ vacuum the carpet ”.
On the other hand, in art, Chicanos have been expressing their vision of the world through the plastic arts, literature, cinema, as well as music (in rock and rap) and even in the body arts, with a set of symbols and figures in tattoos.
In the area of politics and social rights, the Chicano movement was a protest movement against discrimination against the population of Mexican origin in the United States that took place between 1965 and 1979. Its objective was to challenge the racial conventions that maintained the Chicano citizens marginalized and displaying Chicano status with pride.
The Chicano movement had basically four sides. On the one hand, the youth movement, focused on discrimination in schools, the anti-war movement, opposed to wars, the agricultural workers movement, and a fourth movement that emphasized the difficulties in gaining access to political power. Some eminent leaders of the Chicano political movement were César Chávez or Dolores Huerta.