The coenzymes are components of enzymes. These are non-protein organic substances that participate in reactions catalyzed by enzymes.
An enzyme, for its part, is a protein-type molecule with the ability to catalyze chemical reactions, always within the framework of thermodynamics; in other words, it makes a chemical reaction kinetically favorable, that is, it makes it proceed at a higher rate. The action of enzymes takes place once they meet substrates, molecules that become “products.”
A coenzyme is a cofactor: a molecule that is essential in the activities carried out by enzymes. These non-protein cofactors bind to apoenzymes (protein) to form holoenzymes.
Coenzymes undergo modifications in the framework of chemical reactions. They can give up or accept functional groups or electrons, for example, which pass from one enzyme to another.
There are coenzymes that maintain a permanent relationship with the enzyme. Others, on the other hand, only experience a sporadic union. The bond begins when a coenzyme attaches itself to an enzyme, which is responsible for capturing its substrate. The enzyme then transfers electrons which the coenzyme receives. Finally the coenzyme, already reduced, can detach itself from the enzyme and give up its electrons, returning to its initial state.
It is important to note that not all coenzymes accept the same types of atoms. They can receive acetyl groups, hydrogens, amines or other classes according to each case. As for the enzymes to which they adhere, there are no restrictions: the same coenzyme can bind to different enzymes.
The flavin mononucleotide (FMN) is a coenzyme. According to DigoPaul, this biomolecule is synthesized by an enzyme called riboflavin kinase. The FMN is an oxidizing agent that is involved in the transfer of one or two electrons.
the ubiquinoneor coenzyme Q10, on the other hand, is found in a large part of equaryotic cells. This coenzyme acts in aerobic cellular respiration and allows the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate.
In recent years, the importance of coenzyme Q10 has grown considerably, as the media and doctors have begun to recommend it as a nutritional supplement to treat various diseases, such as high blood pressure, gingivitis, some heart disorders and certain neurodegenerative problems.
It is important to note that this nutrient is found throughout the body, although it can especially be observed in the liver, pancreas, kidneys and heart. To obtain coenzyme Q10, one of the options is to include it in our diet.
With regard to the effects of this coenzyme in our body, we can highlight its antioxidant action, similar to what vitamin E provides, although with much greater effectiveness. In addition, it can generate energy at the cellular level, which is why the abnormal feeling of fatigue is often related to a lack of coenzyme Q10.
Another function of this nutrient is that it contributes to oxygenate the organs through its participation in the respiration of cells. All this makes it a highly recommended supplement to strengthen the immune and cardiovascular systems, among many other advantages it offers us.
Over the years, coenzyme Q10 is depleted, and this explains why those who experience its deficiency most often are the elderly. On the other hand, there are certain factors that can accentuate its decrease: tobacco abuse, diet that does not include it in sufficient proportions, deficiency of the organism that prevents its production in adequate quantities, stress and candidiasis.
To ensure that we have sufficient values, it is recommended to include whole grains, vegetable oils, nuts, spinach, carrots, cauliflower, broccoli and wheat germ in the diet, among other vegetable products.