The cognitive is what belongs to or is related to knowledge. This, in turn, is the accumulation of information that is available thanks to a learning process or experience.
The current of psychology in charge of cognition is cognitive psychology, which analyzes the procedures of the mind that have to do with knowledge. Its purpose is the study of the mechanisms that are involved in the creation of knowledge, from the simplest to the most complex.
The cognitive development (also known as cognitive development), meanwhile, focuses on intellectual procedures and behaviors emanating from these processes. This development is a consequence of people’s will to understand reality and function in society, which is why it is linked to the natural capacity of human beings to adapt and integrate into their environment.
The most common way of analyzing data and using cognitive resources is known as cognitive style. It should be noted that this is not linked to intelligence or IQ, but is a factor inherent to personality.
Another related concept is that of cognitive bias, a distortion that affects the way a person captures the real. At a general level, we speak of cognitive distortions when errors or failures in the processing of information are noticed.
The cognitive therapy or cognitive-behavioral, finally, is a form of intervention of psychotherapy that focuses on cognitive restructuring, since it considers that the distortions mentioned above produce negative consequences on behavior and emotions.
Multiple authors have spoken about cognitive learning, including Piaget, Tolman, Gestalt, and Bandura. All agree that it is the process in which information enters the cognitive system, that is, reasoning, is processed and causes a certain reaction in said person.
As described by Piaget, the development of intelligence is divided into several parts, these are:
* Sensorimotor period: It covers from the birth of the individual to 2 years of age. It is the learning that is carried out through the senses and the possible representations that memory makes of the objects and situations that the individual faces. At this stage, imitation is the response to learning.
* Preoperational period: From 2 years old and up to 7 years old, the child can analyze things through symbols, hence the importance of children’s stories full of practical metaphors that allow the little one to become aware of their environment. the limitation that exists at this stage is linked to logic, and it is delayed imitation and language that are the ways in which the person reacts to what they learn.
* Period of concrete actions: This stage ranges from 7 to 11 years old, it is characterized by the development of reasoning capacity through logic but on present and concrete situations, it is not possible yet, according to the age of the CI, that the individual make abstractions to classify their knowledge. In any case, the person is able to understand concepts such as time and space, discerning which things belong to reality and which to fantasy. The first approach to the understanding of morality is also given at this stage. The reaction to knowledge is the logic at the moment the events occur.
* Period of formal operations: From the age of 11 to 15, the individual begins to develop the ability to perform mental tasks for which he needs thought to formulate hypotheses and achieve resolution to problems. Begins to show interest in human relationships and personal identity.
Before closing this definition, I would be interested in sharing one more point about the cognitive. As certain studies have revealed, after the age of 45, a decrease in the functioning of our cognitive system can be seen. It begins with slight forgetfulness, such as the place where we leave the house keys or reading a text several times without being able to understand it, etc. They are simple facts that are usually related to abundant stress or a high level of tension or anxiety (in some cases it is just that) but in many cases they are the first symptoms of diseases that will be diagnosed years later, such as Dementia or Alzheimer’s.
The way in which scientists can diagnose a person’s cognitive decline is through studies of memory, vocabulary, abilities to understand their environment, and the ability to respond to writing and semantic problems.
According to DigoPaul, cognitive deterioration can take 20 or 30 years to manifest itself and the triggers can be mental illnesses, obesity and other disorders that favor its wear and tear. The medicinal form in which this damage could be prevented is unknown, however it is known that leading a healthy life is the best way in which we can avoid falling into this deterioration or contracting the diseases that are linked to it.