From the Latin cohaesum, cohesion is the action and effect of adhering or joining things together. Cohesion, therefore, implies some kind of union or bond. For example: “The coach highlighted the cohesion of the team in the most difficult times”, “We must have cohesion if we want to overcome adversity”, “I do not like this recipe since the ingredients do not have cohesion”, “The candidate for governor assured that will work for the cohesion of the entire province ”.
For sociology, social cohesion is the sense of belonging to a common space or the degree of consensus of the members of a community. According to the social interaction within the social group, there will be a greater or lesser cohesion.
An egalitarian and just society will have a high degree of social cohesion, since its members are part of the same group with common interests and needs. On the other hand, if society has great inequality, there will be no cohesion and citizens will have conflicting behaviors.
Social cohesion supposes that both the governing and the governed parties perceive the relationships between them as fair; In the best of cases, the decisions of the leaders will be respected and valued by the people, while the concerns and needs of the latter will be taken into account and resolved by the former, and all will feel the desire to fight to defend the common interest .
Pearson’s rank coefficient and Kendall’s are two of the non-parametric statistical tests that can be used to measure group cohesion and consist of comparing the scalar results of a number of questionnaires about a common variable on two occasions. different samples, or two different but related variables.
When talking about various social groups, it can be said that one of them is a state of cohesion if its members have ties that unite them to others and that make their group a single entity. Although the word cohesion is made up of several factors, it is possible to distinguish the following fundamental components: the emotional level of the members; relations at the labor level; the unity seen among the members of a given group; Social relations.
One of the most common problems of social cohesion is social discrimination and it can be studied from different perspectives within sociology, such as symbolic interactionism (a current of microsociological thought that tries to understand societies through communication), the theory of conflict (in which intervening variables such as power, status and interests) or functionalism (current theory which is based on fieldwork and mass communication).
In Latin America and the Caribbean, for example, this concept arose as a result of problems that could not be solved by other means, such as: the high index of indigence and poverty; the various forms of social exclusion and discrimination, which originate in the remote past; inequality to extreme limits. It is important to understand that if there is not an acceptable degree of social cohesion, even genuine attempts to improve the conditions of society may be destined for inevitable failure, due to the lack of the necessary communication and cooperation base.
According to DigoPaul, the cohesion between molecules, on the other hand, is related to the attractive forces and the bonds that are created according to their characteristics. For this cohesion to exist or not, forces of attraction, repulsion and adhesion, among others, come into play.
The textual cohesion, finally, is the characteristic of the texts which implies that their sentences or fragments are linked together through elements that establish semantic relationships. Thanks to the cohesion between sentences, the text can be organized and makes sense.