Egypt Population

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Egypt is 104,124,440, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 104,124,440
Population growth rate 2.28%
Birth rate 29.60 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall life expectancy 73.19 years
Men life expectancy 70.57 years
Women life expectancy 75.93 years
Age structure
0-14 years 33.38%
15-64 years 62.35%
65 years and above 4.28%
Median age 25.30 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 1.03
Population density 103.97 residents per km²
Urbanization 42.10%
99% Arabs, minority. by Nubians, Bedouins, Berbers, Beja and others
Muslims (mainly Sunnis) 94%, Copts and members of other religious communities 6%
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.700
HDI ranking 116th out of 194

People in Egypt

91 percent of the population of Egypt belong to the Egyptian people. You speak arabic. But Nubians, Bedscha and Berbers also live in Egypt.

The fellahs, who are farmers and cultivate arable land, are the direct descendants of the ancient Egyptians. 60 percent of Egyptians are fellahs. The Christian Copts are also descendants of the ancient Egyptians. These live mainly in cities and primarily in Upper Egypt (that is, in the south of Egypt).

About 140,000 Nubians live in southern Egypt. They live here and in northern Sudan in their old settlement area of ​​Nubia. The Nubians are darker-skinned than the Arabs, they speak their own language that the Arab Egyptians do not understand and they have their own culture. They often live in brightly painted houses that have a vaulted roof. That way it stays cooler inside.

Few people live in the desert. There are around 70,000 in Egypt. They include members of the nomadic people of the Bedjah. They also speak their own language. They live as Bedouins in the Arabian Desert, east of the Nile. The Libyan desert, especially the Siwa oasis, is inhabited by a small minority of Berbers who speak a dialect called “Siwi”.

Most Egyptians live on the Nile River, which flows through the country from south to north. The fertile farmland of Egypt lies on the banks of the Nile. Here the landscape is lush and beautifully green. A particularly large number of people settle on the Nile delta in the north of the country. The rest of the country is criss-crossed by a dusty and very dry desert. Survival is much more difficult here. But some people also live here.

Most of the population lives in the Egyptian capital Cairo, which is also the largest city in Africa. But Alexandria and Giza are also cities with several million residents.

The population of Egypt is growing steadily, every year by 1.8 percent. This is a big problem for the country because all of these people want to be fed and find work.

Languages in Egypt

The Egyptian official language is Arabic. The Egyptians speak a certain Egyptian-Arabic dialect (Egyptian-Arabic). The Egyptian dialect differs from Standard Arabic in vocabulary and pronunciation. Standard Arabic is used in newspapers, however. The written language is thus standard Arabic.

In the south of the country, the Nubians speak Nubian. In some oases you also have your own language. French is taught as a foreign language, but English is also taught.

Religions in Egypt

Egypt is a state in which mainly Muslims live. Islam has been the Egyptian state religion since 1980. 90 out of 100 Egyptians are Muslims, namely Sunnis. But there are also Christians in the country, the Copts. About nine out of 100 Egyptians are Copts. Jews and members of the Baha’i religion are small minorities. You can find out more about the Baha’i religion on the children’s website religionen-discover.

In Egypt there are different interpretations of Islam. Some want to open up more to the West and live more freely, while others want to stick to old traditions and rules. There are always arguments between the two currents.

Who are the Copts?

Nine out of 100 Egyptians are members of Christianity. Most of these Christians are Copts. Copts are members of the Coptic Orthodox Churches. They used to speak the Coptic language, which is now only used in the church. Most of them live in the big cities of Egypt like Cairo and Alexandria.

Life is not easy for Copts in Egypt because there are repeated attacks on members of this religious community. Many Copts have left Egypt precisely because they are repeatedly the target of terrible attacks by Islamists. Islamists fight other religions and their attacks are also sometimes aimed at destinations where tourists go on vacation. On discovering religions you can find out more about the Coptic religion.

Egypt Overview

Egypt, a country linking northeast Africa with the Middle East, dates to the time of the pharaohs. Millennia-old monuments sit along the fertile Nile River Valley, including the colossal Pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx, as well as the hieroglyph-lined Karnak Temple and Valley of the Kings tombs in Luxor. Cairo, the capital, is home to Ottoman landmarks like Muhammad Ali Mosque and the Egyptian Museum, a trove of antiquities. Egypt is renowned for its ancient civilization and some of the world’s most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx.

State Facts of Egypt:

  • Capital City: Cairo
  • Population: Approximately 110 million
  • Area: Approximately 1,010,408 square kilometers
  • Full Country Name: Arab Republic of Egypt
  • Currency: Egyptian Pound (EGP)
  • Language: Arabic
  • ISO Country Codes: EG, EGY, 818

Bordering Countries of Egypt

Egypt is a country located in the northeast corner of the African continent and is bordered by four countries. To the east, lies the Red Sea, which separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia and Israel. To the west, it is bordered by Libya for 1,115 km (692 mi). To the south, it is bordered by Sudan for 1,273 km (792 mi), and to the north lies its Mediterranean coastline. Together with Sudan, these countries form what is known as Greater Egypt.

The Red Sea has been an important maritime route for centuries and continues to be used today for trade between Egypt and other countries in the region such as Saudi Arabia, Israel and Jordan. In addition to this trade route, there are also several oil pipelines that cross through this area linking up different parts of Egypt with those of its neighbours. The Suez Canal provides a further important maritime link between Egypt and Europe as it connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea. It was opened in 1869 and has been used ever since by vessels travelling between Europe and Asia.

The border between Libya and Egypt is mostly desert terrain but there are some oases scattered throughout this area as well as some agricultural land along parts of this border region where crops such as wheat can be grown. The border with Sudan runs through a variety of landscapes including desert terrain, savanna grasslands and mountainous areas making up part of what is known as Nubian Desert. This border region also contains several important archaeological sites such as Abu Simbel located on Lake Nasser which was flooded when construction began on Aswan High Dam in 1960s.

Egypt’s Mediterranean coast stretches from Rafah in Gaza Strip at northern edge to Salloum on western border with Libya at southern edge; it also includes two islands: Tiran Island off Sinai Peninsula near entrance to Gulf of Aqaba; Sanafir Island off coast near city of Hurghada further south along coast; both islands are subject to dispute between Egypt & Saudi Arabia over ownership & sovereignty rights over them; they were transferred from Egyptian control to Saudi control in 2016 following agreement between two countries but still remain subject matter of legal dispute before Egyptian courts; maritime boundary agreement between two countries was signed 2017 delimiting exclusive economic zone & continental shelf off both coasts & providing framework for cooperation regarding fishing rights within their respective EEZ’s & management exploitation resources within continental shelf areas.


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